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 . Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel  

Space History for January 1

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Died, Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (Gottfried Leibniz's calculus, particle moving in a gravitational field, catenary equation, exponential calculus)

French inventor Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American Dr. John Jeffries made the first crossing of the English Channel by air, in a balloon.

Giuseppe Piazzi discovered asteroid #1 Ceres.

1 Ceres was the first asteroid discovered, on 1 January 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi. It was originally named Ceres Ferdinandea after both the mythological figure Ceres (Roman goddess of plants and motherly love) and King Ferdinand III of Sicily. King Ferdinand was taking refuge in Palermo at the time, the Kingdom of Naples having been conquered by the French in 1798. The "Ferdinandea" part was not acceptable to other nations of the world and was dropped. Ceres was also called Hera for a short time in Germany.

Born, Gustave Whitehead, German-American inventor (flew in 1901, 2 years, 4 months before the Wright brothers)

Gustave Albin Whitehead (1 January 1874 - 10 October 1927) was a German-American aviation pioneer. His first published flight took place on 14 August 1901 in Connecticut when he flew his Number 21 three times, as reported by the Bridgeport Herald, the New York Herald and the Boston Transcript. The longest flight was 2.5 km (1.5 miles) at a height of up to 60 m (200 ft), significantly better than the Wright brothers' initial flights two years and four months later. There are witness reports that he flew about 1 km (half a mile) as early as 1899. In January 1902 he flew 10 km (7 miles) over the Long Island strait in the improved Number 22.

It has been suggested the reason his flights are so little known is he was of German origin, and that the Wright brothers donated their Wright flyer to the Smithsonian Institute on condition the Institute did not recognize an earlier airplane.

Died, Heinrich Hertz, German physicist

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 - 1 January 1894) was the German physicist for whom the hertz, the SI unit of frequency, is named. In 1888, he was the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic radiation by building apparatus to produce radio waves.

Following Michelson's 1881 experiment (precursor to the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment) which disproved the existence of luminiferous aether, he reformulated Maxwell's equations to take the new discovery into account. Through experimentation, he proved that electric signals can travel through open air, as had been predicted by James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday, and which is the basis for the invention of radio. He also discovered the photoelectric effect (which was later explained by Albert Einstein) when he noticed that a charged object loses its charge more readily when illuminated by ultraviolet light.

Wilhelm Roentgen forwarded reprints of the article he had submitted announcing his discovery of x-rays to several other scientists.

Born, Vasili Ivanovich Voznyuk, Commander of Kapustin Yar launch facility (6/1946-4/1973), credited with single-handedly turning the uninhabitable region into a tolerable living area, with great concern for the welfare of those under his command

The first scheduled airline flight was made, from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, piloted by Tony Jannus.

K. Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1105 Fragaria.

M. Wolf discovered asteroid #1214 Richilde.

Born, Gennadi Vasiliyevich Sarafanov (at Sinenkiye, Saratov Oblast, Russian SFSR), Colonel Russian AF Reserve, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 15, 2 days in space) (deceased)

Born, Vladimir Georgiyevich Titov (at Sretensk, Russia), Colonel Russian AF, Soviet/Russian cosmonaut (Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10, Soyuz TM-4/Mir (first flight over one year), STS 63, STS 86, over 387d total time in spaceflight)

Cosmonaut Vladimir Titov, NASA photo

Born, Sergei Vasiliyevich Avdeyev (at Chapayevsk, Kuybyshev Oblast, Russian SFSR), Russian cosmonaut (Mir 12, Mir 20, Mir 26/27, over 747.5 total days in space)

Born, Abdul Ahad "Abdulah" Mohmand (at Sardah, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan), Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz TM-6/Mir EP3/Soyuz TM-5, nearly 8d 20.5h in spaceflight)

Syncom 3, the first geosynchronous communications satellite, passed from civilian to military control.

Purple Mountain Observatory discovered asteroid #3335.

Carlos Cesco and A. G. Samuel discovered asteroid #1917 Cuyo.

The (US) World Data Center A for Rockets and Satellites was transferred to the National Space Science Data Center.

The Unix epoch began at 00:00:00 UTC. This is the "zero" hour for most computer time systems in use in 2018.

Died, Hermann F. Beduerftig, German/American rocket engineer, Vortex cavity seal float, US Patent # US3194439 A

E. Bowell discovered asteroids #2357 Phereclos, #2761 Eddington and #3197 Weissman.

The ARPANET, a US Department of Defense internetworking system, officially changed to use the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.

Died, James Wayne Wood, astronaut candidate, X-20 DynaSoar pilot

The International Space Year began.

Died, Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph, German guided missile engineer and expert during World War II, member of the German Rocket Team in the US after the war, worked on the Pershing missle and Saturn V

Died, Boris Vladimirovich Morukov MD, Russian civilian physician (Institute of Medical Biological Problems), cosmonaut (STS 106, 11d 19h in spaceflight)

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