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 . Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel  

Space History for January 8


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1587
Born, Johannes Fabricius, Denmark, astronomer (discovered sunspots)
https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/Education/FamousSolorPhysicists/johann-fabricius-1587-1616

1642
Died, Galileo Galilei, Tuscan astronomer, father of the scientific method

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 - 8 January 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. His achievements include improving the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations (including discovery of Jupiter's largest moons), the first law of motion, and supporting Copernicanism effectively. He has been referred to as the "father of modern astronomy", as the "father of modern physics", and as the "father of science." His experimental work is widely considered complementary to the writings of Francis Bacon in establishing the modern scientific method. Galileo's career coincided with that of Johannes Kepler. His work is considered to be a significant break from that of Aristotle, and his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church is taken as a major early example of the conflict of religion and freedom of thought, particularly with science, in Western society.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei

1760
Comet C/1760 A1 (Great comet) approached within 0.0682 AUs of Earth (approx. 6.34 million miles), the seventeenth closest in recorded history.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C/1760_A1

1851
Jean Foucault demonstrated definitively that the Earth rotates on its axis.
https://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/fun/earths-rotation-day

1868
Born, Sir Frank Watson Dyson, English Astronomer Royal (proved Einstein right about light being bent by gravity)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Watson_Dyson

1889
Herman Hollerith received U.S. Patent 395,782 for his electric tabulating machine, the tabulator, the first device for data processing; his firm later became one of IBM's founding companies.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Hollerith#Electromechanical_tabulation_of_data

1891
Born, Walther Bothe, German physicist (Nobel 1954 "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith")

Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 - 8 February 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. Bothe won a Nobel Prize in Physics for 1954 (along with Max Born) for his invention of the coincidence circuit: He discovered that if a single particle is detected by two or more Geiger counters, the detection will be practically coincident in time. Using this observation, he constructed the coincidence circuit allowing several counters in coincidence to determine the angular momentum of a particle. Bothe's coincidence circuit was one of the first AND logic gate (1924). Bothe studied the Compton effect using such a set up and establishing the modern analysis of scatter processes.


http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1954/bothe-bio.html

1894
A Charlois discovered asteroids #379 Huenna and #380 Fiducia.

1905
P Gotz discovered asteroids #554 Peraga and #556 Phyllis.

1908
J H Metcalf discovered asteroid #660 Crescentia.

1923
Born, Joseph Weizenbaum, artificial intelligence pioneer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Weizenbaum

1930
K Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1152 Pawona.

1934
H L Giclas discovered asteroid #3177.

1935
A.C. Hardy patented the spectrophotometer, an instrument to measure a light beam's intensity as a function of its color (wavelength).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935_in_science#Physics

1937
K Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1409 Isko, #1410 Margret and #1411 Brauna.

1942
Born, Stephen Hawking, English theoretical physicist and author
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking

1942
Born, Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich Zudov (at Bor, Gorki Oblast, Russian SFSR), Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 23)
http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/cosmonauts/english/zudov_vyacheslav.htm

1948
M Laugier discovered asteroid #2068 Dangreen.

1952
Died, Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Maury, American astronomer (stellar spectra, discoverer of supergiant, giant & dwarf stars)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonia_Maury

1954
S Arend discovered asteroid #1717 Arlon.

1970
H Potter and A Lokalov discovered asteroid #2975.

1973 06:55:38 GMT
USSR launched Luna 21 carrying the Lunokhod 2 rover, the second robotic Lunar rover.

The Luna 21 spacecraft, launched 8 January 1973, landed on the Moon on 15 January, and deployed the second Soviet Lunar rover (Lunokhod 2) on 16 January, which traversed 37 km across the Lunar surface over four months. The primary objectives of the mission were to collect images of the Lunar surface, examine ambient light levels to determine the feasibility of astronomical observations from the Moon, perform laser ranging experiments from Earth, observe solar X-rays, measure local magnetic fields, and study mechanical properties of the Lunar surface material.



USSR Lunokhod 2 Lunar rover, courtesy of NASA
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=1973-001A

1975
L Kohoutek discovered asteroid #2375.

1981
A Mrkos discovered asteroid #2367 Praha.

1984
E Bowell discovered asteroids #3277 Aaronson, #3759 and #3760; and J Wagner discovered asteroids #3045 Alois, #3512, #3562 and #3589.

1985 19:26:00 GMT
Japan launched the Sakigake mission to Comet Halley.
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1985-001A

1994 10:05:00 GMT
USSR launched the manned spacecraft Soyuz TM-18 into orbit for the 18th expedition to Mir, carrying a crew of three (Viktor Afanasyev, Yury Usachov, Valeri Polyakov).
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1994-001A

1999
Cosmologists announced that the rate of expansion of the universe is increasing.
https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9901076.pdf


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