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 . Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel Space History News - People and events in development of space travel  

Space History for September 28

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Born, Ismael Bullialdus, French astronomer (suggested gravity follows an inverse-square law in 1640)

Donati's comet became the first to be photographed.

Died, Carl Ritter, cofounder of the modern science of geography

J. C. Watson discovered asteroid #168 Sibylla; Prosper Henry discovered asteroid #169 Zelia.

Died, Louis Pasteur (at Dole, France), bacteriologist (pasturization)

Born, Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev, Russian Chief Designer of OKB-23 (1951-1960), developed innovative bomber, cruise missile, and spaceplane designs, later Director of TsAGI, regained his own design bureau just before his death

K. Reinmuth discovered asteroid #958 Asplinda.

K. Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1302 Werra.

Two US Army Air Corps Douglas Cruiser biplanes, flown by Lt. Lowell Smith and Lt. Erik Nelson, completed the first airplane flight around the world, having covered approximately 27,000 miles in flying from Seattle to Seattle over 175 days with 57 stops.

Born, Seymour Cray, American computer scientist

H. Van Gent discovered asteroid #1914 Hartbeespoortdam.

H. Van Gent discovered asteroids #1389 Onnie, #1686 De Sitter, #1986, #2019, #2203, #2801 and #2945.

Born, Aleksander Sergeyevich Ivanchenkov (at Ivanteyevka, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR), Soviet cosmonaut (Salyut 6, Salyut 7; over 147d 12.5h total time in spaceflight)

Cosmonauts Kovalenok and Aleksander Ivanchenkov (right) on the 1978 USSR stamp "140 days in space"
Source: Wikipedia

G. Kulin discovered asteroid #1546 Izsak.

Jupiter's twelfth known satellite, Ananke, was discovered by S. B. Nicholson.

Goethe Link Observatory discovered asteroid #1988 Delores.

Died, Edwin Hubble, American astronomer

Edwin Powell Hubble (20 November 1889 - 28 September 1953) was a noted American astronomer, generally credited for discovering and proving redshift and that the universe is expanding. (The redshift had actually been observed by Vesto Slipher in the 1910s, but the world was largely unaware.)

Hubble's studies at the University of Chicago concentrated on mathematics and astronomy. After earning a law degree at Oxford, and teaching high school in New Albany, Indiana, he returned to astronomy at the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago, where he earned a Ph.D. in 1917. In 1919 Hubble was offered a staff position by George Ellery Hale, the founder and director of Carnegie Institution's Mount Wilson Observatory, near Pasadena, California, where he remained until his death. Shortly before his death, Palomar's 200-inch Hale Telescope was completed, Hubble was the first to use it.

His arrival at Mount Wilson coincided roughly with the completion of the 100-inch Hooker Telescope, then the world's most powerful telescope. Hubble's observations in 1923-1924 with the Hooker Telescope established beyond doubt that the fuzzy "nebulae" seen earlier with less powerful telescopes were not part of our galaxy, as had been thought, but were galaxies themselves, outside the Milky Way. He announced his discoveries on 30 December 1924.

Subsequently, with Milton Humason, Hubble discovered the velocity-distance relation, now know as the Hubble's law, which led to the concept of the expanding universe.

NASA's orbiting Hubble Space Telescope is named in his honor.

Died, William Edward Boeing, founded an aerospace company

1961 17:50:00 GMT
NASA/USAF launched X-15A Mach 5 Heat Transfer Test mission # 41. Forrest Petersen reached 3599 mph (5792 kph, Mach 5.30) max. speed, 101,805 ft (31.030 km, 19.281 mi) max. altitude to test the reentry heat limit. Cockpit smoke was due to scorching paint.

1962 18:04:00 GMT
NASA and the USAF launched X-15A Heating, VO Stability Test mission # 70. John McKay reached 2765 mph (4450 kph, Mach 4.22) maximum speed and 68,210 ft (20.790 km, 12.918 mi) maximum altitude. This and most following flights had no lower ventral fin.

1963 20:09:00 GMT
The US Navy launched the (classified) Transit 5B-1 navigation satellite and the APL SN 39 research satellite from Vandenburg, California on a Thor Able-Star booster.

The mission of Satellite 1963-038C (APL SN 39), launched together with a classified Department of Defense spacecraft on 28 September 1963, was to measure the omnidirectional flux of protons and electrons at various energy levels, radiation effects on transistors, and the effectiveness of thermal coatings. Its planned orbit was 1120 x 1070 kilometers with an inclination 88.9 degrees. The satellite weighed 62 kg; its body was in the shape of an 0.46 meter x 0.25 meter octagonal prism. It was powered by four solar blades, and transmited on 136, 162, and 324 MHz. The spacecraft was built for the Bureau of Naval Weapons. In 1967, it was still sending usable data from all systems.

NASA and the USAF launched X-15A mission # 117 in which Joe Engle reached a maximum speed of 3888 mph (6257 kph, Mach 5.59) and achieved a maximum altitude of 97,000 ft (29.566 km, 18.371 mi).

1965 18:07:00 GMT
NASA and the USAF launched X-15A N.Scan/BLN/Tail Test mission # 150. John McKay received astronaut wings (USAF definition), reaching a maximum speed of 3731 mph (6005 kph, Mach 5.33), and a maximum altitude of 295,600 ft (90.099 km, 55.985 mi).

1967 00:45:00 GMT
The Intelsat 2 F-4 communications satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific at 176 deg E 1967-1970; 166 deg W 1971; over the Atlantic 30-42 deg W 1972.

P. Wild discovered asteroid #2517.

1971 04:00:00 GMT
Japan launched SS-01 Shinsei into orbit from Kagoshima for scientific observations in outer space, the first Japanese scientific satellite.

Shinsei (new star) was the first Japanese scientific satellite, launched 28 September 1971. The scientific payload included solar radio receivers, cosmic-ray detectors, and ionospheric probes. The power supply system consisted of solar cells and nickel cadmium batteries. The satellite was a 26-sided body measuring 71.2 cm in diameter across the flat sides. All experiments operated nominally after launch, except for the electron temperature probe (damaged on separation) and one Geiger tube (failed after 3 days). Otherwise, good data were received for four months until a tape recorder failure occurred. Only a very limited amount of realtime data was subsequently obtained. By late 1973, the experimental equipment had become no longer useful for meaningful scientific observations.

1971 10:00:22 GMT
USSR launched Luna 19 to the Moon, a heavy Lunar orbiter which conducted Lunar surface mapping.

Luna 19 was placed in an intermediate Earth parking orbit on 28 September 1971, from which it was put on a translunar trajectory by the Proton Block D stage. It entered Lunar orbit 3 October 1971. Luna 19 extended the systematic study of Lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the Lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active Lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained.

P. Wild discovered asteroid #1860 Barbarossa.

H. L. Giclas discovered asteroid #3110.

Died, John Herbert Chapman, Canadian physicist (radio propagation in the ionosphere, space research)

1980 15:09:55 GMT
USSR launched the Progress 11 unmanned supply vessel from Baikonur to the Salyut 6 space station.

USSR launched Progress 11 on 28 September 1980 for delivery of various cargos to the Salyut 6 orbital station. It docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Sep 1980 17:03:00 GMT, undocked on 9 Dec 1980 10:23:00 GMT, and was destroyed in reentry on 11 Dec 1980 14:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.23 days. Total docked time 69.72 days.

1982 23:41:00 GMT
Intelsat 5 F-5 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 63 deg E 1982-1990; 66 deg E 1991-1996; 33 deg E 1996; 72 deg E 1997.

E. F. Helin and V. Shkodrav discovered asteroid #3546 Atanasoff.

1983 08:00:00 GMT
USSR launched the Cosmos 1500 radarsat with new kinds of information measuring apparatus and methods of remote investigation of the Pacific Ocean in the interests of science and of various branches of the national economy of the USSR.

B. A. Skiff discovered asteroid #3153, #3154, #3155 and #3706.

1984 06:00:00 GMT
USSR launched the Cosmos 1602 radarsat to continue trials of new measurement apparatus and methods of remote investigation of the oceans and Earth's surface in the interests of science and of various branches of the national economy of the USSR.

1985 23:36:00 GMT
Intelsat 5A F-12 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 60 deg E 1985-1989; 1 deg W 1989-1994; 21 deg W 1994-1996; 56 deg W 1996-1998.

1989 00:05:00 GMT
USSR launched the Intercosmos 24 scientific satellite from Plesetsk, which released the Czech Magion 2 subsatellite, permitting simultaneous spatially separated investigations of plasma processes in circumterrestrial space.

The Intercosmos 24 scientific satellite, launched 28 September 1989, carried particles and fields experiments for a comprehensive study of the processes of propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere and their interaction with charged particles of the radiation belts, in cooperation with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania (the international scientific project entitled "Aktivny"), including US participation. The Czechoslovak Magion 2 subsatellite was deployed on 3 October 1989, which examined signal propogation from Intercosmos 24 for research of the magnetosphere and the ionosphere of the Earth. Magion 2 formed a part of the scientific program of Intercosmos 24: execution of the Aktivny project in conjunction with Intercosmos 24 permitted simultaneous spatially separate investigations of plasma processes in circumterrestrial space.

1989 17:05:00 GMT
USSR launched the Gorizont 19 communications satellite from Baikonur to support telephone and telegraph operations and for television transmission, which was positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg E 1989-1996; 34 deg E 1996-1998.

1990 07:26:00 GMT
USSR launched the Meteor 2-20 weather satellite from Plesetsk to gather round-the-clock meteorological information.

During the 1h 52m Mir EO-14-3 EVA, Mir cosmonauts Tsibliyev and Serebrov installed material samples on and retrieved experiment packages from the exterior of the Mir space station, and documented the external condition of Mir.

1998 23:41:27 GMT
Russia launched the Molniya 1-91 communications satellite from Plesetsk.

1999 11:00:00 GMT
Russia launched the Resurs F-1M landsat from Plesetsk, a remote sensing film satellite whose return capsule was recovered in Russia on 22 October 1999.

Died, Rudolf Karl Hans Schlidt, rocket engineer, German expert in guided missles during World War II, member of the German Rocket Team in the US after the war, essential project manager of the first US satellite, Explorer 1

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